Sheet Metal · 2023年4月4日

How to prevent the main failures of various parts of CNC machine tools

1. The failure of the spindle component

Common failures include: failure of the automatic tensioning tool holder device, failure of the automatic transmission device, and unstable maintenance of the accuracy of the spindle movement.

2. Applause in the feed drive chain

The faults are generally manifested by the decline in motion quality, such as decreased positioning accuracy, increased backlash, crawling of the worktable during feed motion, and excessive bearing noise. This type of failure is generally eliminated by adjusting the preload of the motion pair, adjusting the loose link, and adjusting the compensation link.

3. Failure of automatic tool changer (ATC)

The fault of this device accounts for about 50%, which is manifested in: the movement of the tool magazine; the positioning error is too large; the machine is held by the tool holder is unstable, and the manipulator movement error is too large, which will cause the tool change action to jam and the whole machine to stop running .

4. Compression failure of the limit switch for position detection

The main factors that affect the normal pressing of the limit switch are the changes in the movement characteristics of the moving parts, the reliability of the mechanical device of the pressing limit switch and the quality characteristics of the limit switch itself. The fault can be eliminated by adjusting or replacing the parts.

5. Malfunction of matching accessories

The matching accessories include faults such as cutting fluid, chip removal device, guide rail protection, and spindle cooling temperature control box.

The handling of mechanical faults is troublesome. It requires a lot of dismantling and unloading, which requires a lot of effort. Therefore, the maintenance personnel must be more than 90% sure of the diagnosis before they can ask the mechanics for help, especially if it has been cleared in principle. , And the experiment can be disassembled after necessary analysis of the failure phenomenon. It is not allowed to disassemble easily and blindly.

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