Nowadays, sheet metal processing and some of the stamping parts have become a very important part of the equipment of many manufacturers, and even deeply affect many industries. There are also many key links in the entire process of sheet metal processing, and the cutting process is one of them. The quality of the cutting directly affects the quality of the sheet metal. So, what are the several important factors in cutting? Let’s discuss it with everyone below.
Several important factors that affect the cutting quality during sheet metal processing are:
1. Alloy composition
The alloy composition affects the strength, specific gravity, weldability, oxidation resistance and acidity of the material to a certain extent. Some important elements in ferroalloy materials are carbon, chromium, nickel, magnesium and zinc.
The higher the carbon content, the harder the material is to cut (the critical value is considered to be 0.8% carbon). The following models of carbon steel have good laser cutting results: St 37-2, StW 22, DIN 1.203.
2. The basic microstructure of materials
Generally speaking, the finer the particles that make up the material, the better the cutting edge quality.
3. Surface quality and roughness.
If there are rusty areas or oxide layers on the surface, the cut contour will be irregular and there will be many damaged points; to cut corrugated boards, select the maximum thickness cutting parameter.
Fourth, surface treatment
The most commonly used surface treatments are galvanizing, painting, anodizing or covering with layered plastic film. Plates treated with zinc are prone to dross on the edges. For painted panels, the cutting quality depends on the composition of the coated product.
Sheets with layered material coating are very suitable for laser cutting. In order for the capacitive detection to work trouble-free and to get the best adhesion of the layered coating (to avoid blisters), the layered edge must always be on the upper part of the cutting workpiece.
Five, beam reflection
How the beam reflects on the surface of the workpiece depends on the basic material, surface roughness and processing method. Some aluminum alloy, copper, brass and stainless steel plates have high reflectivity characteristics. When cutting these materials, pay special attention to adjusting the focus position.
6. Thermal conductivity
When welding, materials with low thermal conductivity require less power than materials with high thermal conductivity. For example, for chromium-nickel alloy steel, the power required is less than that of structural steel, and the heat absorption generated by processing is also less. For example, when welding materials such as copper, aluminum and brass, a large part of the heat generated by the absorbing laser will be lost. Because the heat is conducted away from the target point of the beam, the materials in the heat-affected zone are more difficult to melt.
7. Heat Affected Zone
Laser flame cutting and laser melting cutting will cause material variation in the edge area of the cut material. Regarding the relationship between the range of the heat-affected zone and the thickness of the basic material, Table 1 lists some reference values.
The above are several important factors that affect the quality of sheet metal cutting. As long as these aspects are done well, then doing a good job in sheet metal processing is an easy task.